Taking his eyes off the walls of the Szczebrzeska Gate and the free space behind the gate, which flows lazily by the flowing Łabuńka, a thought from the scenes that once took place in that until recently muddy field, let's go back to the collegiate church in Zamość.
Serious, a whitewashed pediment church, with a semicircular apse, with a belfry tower standing aside, it is located in a lush green overgrown fence, in which two figures: Our Lady and St.. Floriana. The latter, the top of the Szczebrzeska Gate once decorated, was moved to a processional cemetery. Clock, on whose stone slab the sun wanders, measuring time since the 1868s, was funded by Bishop Baranowski. In the corner of the cemetery, General Wittenberg was once buried at the gate, who died here in captivity, longing for a distant Swedish homeland, separated from it by the space of unlawfully invaded lands and the undulating road of the gray Baltic Sea.
There is an inflatable mule adjacent to the processional cemetery, place of residence of each collegiate priest; was built of material obtained after the demolition of the chancellor's castle in Skokówka, and later it was rebuilt by Fr.. Mikołaj Kiślicki inflow. A beautiful portal, whose pinned, the grooved columns with the capitals' heads support the upper part with the coat of arms of Prussia at the top, it has the same ornamental motif as on the belfry, slightly squashed scrolls. From above the arch, the gate is ideally sized for the Renaissance, the chubby little faces of Baroque angels are smiling.
In the mesothelium, the oldest building in the city, was used for the first time in Zamość to decorate stucco, placing it only on the edges of the cross vault, as a reference to the old ones, gothic ribs. In stone, the wrought iron portals of the first floor have a very rich floral and fruity ornament.
Temple dedicated to the "Resurrection of the Lord and the witness of this, St.. Thomas the Apostle” founded in 1586 r. in six years it was consecrated, which still in the raw walls, no altars in chapels, without ambon and without stall, was completed by the Bishop of Chełm, Stanisław Gomoliński. Soon after, she was elevated to the dignity of a collegiate church, and then it was given even more importance by entrusting each time it with the underpurpose custody of minors, if it were so fate, ordinate, by giving up supreme authority over the Zamość Academy, with which she was closely, connected by an inseparable knot and by an invitation to sit on the established Zamojski Tribunal.
Entering the interior, let's dip the fingertips in holy water, filling a black marble stoup, brought here years ago from the church in Radecznica.
Let us take a look at the interior that is impressive in the style of a flourishing Renaissance, supported on pillars separating the main nave from the side ones, and extended with a number of regular chapels.
The vault has harmonious ribbing contours. The dignity radiates from the walls divided by cornices and pilasters, and the arches stretched over the pillars, which divide the aisles and choir arches are decorative keystones. Among them, apart from the images of the founder and his wife, Griselda, The modern era of the formation of the ruling church was also immortalized, Batory and Anna Jagiellonian, as well as other prominent personalities.
The work of the city builder and court architect of Chancellor Bernardo Morando, which gives simplicity and seriousness an advantage over decorative, along with other buildings in Zamość, it had a great influence on a number of Polish late Renaissance churches in the 17th century. Contributed to the introduction of plastered facades, pilastered and glazed walls, decorative gables and stucco with classic motifs.
Collegiate church in Zamość, as well as other churches here, too great and too great, they did not become a type of themselves to others, but they were the starting point and the first stage of their development, which led to the creation of a type of Polish Renaissance church, the type called Lublin; Lublin was the first to succumb to the taste of younger and smaller, but thanks to the artistry of Morand beautiful Zamosc.
Therefore, many Lublin churches owe their style and beauty to the buildings of Zamość, parish church in Kazimierz, oo. Bernardine church in Leżajsk. He was conceived in Zamość, and the Lublin type of church shaped outside its borders reached and further on to Sokal, Kielce, Warsaw, Lowicz, Grodno, Vilnius, and even Wejherowo, where it marked itself in one of the Calvary chapels.
Many years passed before the temple was completely finished, and not just the queen, but then and his successors made efforts, that the interior of her, or is it still being designed in 1620 r. for the ordinate of Tomasz by the architect Jan Jaroszewicz, to decorate today the no longer existing pulpit - or the bronze bell on the collegiate tower, to hang the glory of the Lord on everyone - or hang one of the chapels with a beautiful work of art, The Annunciation, how to add splendor to hetman's grandson Jan Zamoyski - or with rich records like Wiśniowiecka Gryzelda or Szański Andrzej, Chełm sub-capital, enrich it - or with organs on the sound of deep tones the soul up to heaven raising the tabernacle of the Lord, like Marcin Zamoyski, the first ordinate from the new line, to give - or for the already donated church equipment a new golden monstrance, rubies and planted pearls, the coat of arms of the intestine on a carved pedestal to add - or magnificent carpets, like Stanisław Riecus, canonical collegiate, to spread her on the steps of the altars - or silver ciborium, the meeting of the unfaithful Thomas presenting with Christ, in the coat of arms of the Zamoyski and Ostrogski family, carved in distant Wrocław, put in the main altar - or the old one, worked with gold and silver, serious purple, mournful black, white, amaranth or green eyes enjoying chasubles and sumptuous covers, as Pelagia z Zamoyskich Branicka, to repair - or when reaching newer times, former sandstone flooring for marble slabs in the presbytery, and the concrete naves should be changed, or a thorough restoration of the church by ordination. And the temple owes its hetman efforts alone, in addition to the already known benefits, many more.
For example, the four large paintings by Dominik Robusti Tintoret's son on the walls of the presbytery, while the founder was still alive, via the post office in Kraków, keeping and there permanently settled Monteluppich w 1604 r. imported from Italy. These thoughts occupied the chancellor quite a lot, and quite a few long letters written to Venice went, when he was worried whether the cedar or cypress would give a more durable tree for the painting, when he gave instructions about the colors, or even when he sent his drawing to the painter to the painting of the unfaithful Thomas, which he wanted to have done as he intended. So far, four great ones adorn the presbytery, and the other hung in the main altar for a long time, until it is different, by Kasiński or Palma Nuovo, did not replace.
Or even a painting of St.. Nicholas hanging in the Infultian chapel, brought by the hetman from a distant Moscow expedition to a collegiate temple, with a later painted dean Kiślicki and also from later times with a Latin bishop miter, which reflects strangely grossly from the pontifical garments of the Eastern rite.
However, no other picture raises any objections in terms of beauty and harmony, belonging to the collegiate peculiarities - a painting depicting the scene of the Annunciation repeated so many times, which, on the other hand, for many years was and still is the cause of disputes, who to assign the authorship to.
Italian or not Italian painter hidden behind velvet, the blue veil of the picture, he was a great artist anyway, which, against the background of the architectural interior, developed a compact and transparent composition.
Blessed Virgin of the beautiful, gracefully upwardly raised girl's face, through the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, with naively visualized grace in the shape of rays flowing from the spout, he looks up at the top part of the painting to the figure of God the Father, hanging in the clouds. Hands, I have just taken it from the prayer book lying next to it, she involuntarily folded it a bit on her lap, but ready, already willing to embrace in a child not entrusted to them. The angel who brings great news is beyond her sight and, although so expressive and treated on one level,, is in the background. His role is over - he lowers his head, looks down, and by the female beauty of the face, the softness of the tilt and cross on the chest of the hands, the artist tries to emphasize its secondary nature.
Image attributed to an Italian artist, however, he has a non-Italian crown on his head. The custom of crowning church paintings was alien to Italian artists, who either left the head of the Blessed Virgin, only decorate them with tangles of hair, or covering her up, Madonna with the baby in her arms or playing at her knees, the hem of the robe.
Who knows if the crown is not a detail added later, which, however, this not-so-Italian way of honoring, it does not spoil the impression of finished beauty in any way, which he becomes overwhelmed with this work.
A different image of the Blessed Virgin "Obwachowska", called. Painted on sawn timber, He was especially venerated by the burghers of Zamość, who especially in hard times, threatening the city during wars or Pomerania, they prayed fervently to their Patroness. At first, she was adored in the town hall, hence the name comes from, and then the village was officially transferred to the collegiate church 1803 r.
There was also a lot going on in that temple.
Its walls swarmed with priests' surplices and the enormous crowds of people carrying the strabismus of the founder of the city into the grave crypt, creator of the ordinance and founder of many institutions in the city. Its walls rang from the mourning singing of priests and the sad wailing of members of the oldest in Zamość, Literary society called fraternity, which are obliged to mutual assistance in misfortune, how it could and understood, his closest family wanted to sweeten the moments of separation with singing.
W 1633 r. by the glow of fire, the bloody temple suffered a lot of damage, she surrendered herself to the loving healing of the wounds inflicted on her by fire, under the direction of the Italian architect dell Aqua, to soon, in a quarter of a century, in the spring, a great week night full of fragrances and warm breezes, pour fire again on fire and cover with flame, in which the old temple files destroyed, and the bell in the tower is melted from the heat, for a long time he ceased to summon the faithful to prayer with his bronze sound.
She did not enjoy the visit of Augustus II too much, nor the double visits of Emperor Joseph, and only out of necessity, without hearty sobs, funeral executions for Prince Karol Loratynski, kinsman of the empress, she listened.
Instead, their walls were singing pious exultation in the opal fumes of incense to receive the blessed remains of Jan Kanty, which by Fr.. Piskorski brought as a gift from the Jagiellonian University of Zamość University, among the great ceremonies they rested in the Academic Chapel.
Or happily surprised, echoed from under the vaults rejected with all the power hidden in the years of captivity chanted by the infuat Skotnicki after the fortress was taken over by the troops of prince Józef - Te Deum.
He still remembers the distinguished celebrant of the Bishop of Kamieniec, Jan Krzysztof in Gnin Gniński, who from his young sister, Tomasz Józef, made an oath of ordinance, in a trembling voice, he was picking up. Remembers and other ordinances regarding the event, also in front of the same altar taking place, when childless Jan Jakób for Andrzej Zamoyski solemnly renounced it.
Over the past years, he remembers the burial of Korybut's mother, nee Zamoyska, Wiśniowiecka, which lay in the basement of the collegiate church - and the quick one, but gorgeous, the second female funeral of Marcin's widow, Anna Zamoyska née Gnińska, which already then, late spring, She assisted in her son's oath when she was sick, and a few Sundays after that, in the war time of summer she died.
Or there were a lot of Greek and Latin dignitaries, who had synodal deliberations in a small, the Basilian church started, they were moved immediately to the collegiate church for a more spacious room and more seriousness, and then they were immortalized on the wall above the choir in time, when the exquisite polychrome added splendor to the collegiate church.
And they remember - how well they remember Józef Piłsudski's young figure, carefully from outside the pillar, when he met Sulkiewicz Aleksander and Miklaszewski Jan here after escaping from a St. Petersburg hospital before crossing the border of the Tanew River - and perhaps also the gamekeeper Berdzik, which was thrown by the rickety footbridge thrown by Tanew, which is a link between broken districts, led the future Leader of the Nation and handed over to the peasant Mikołaj Rybizant, that he might lead him on. Rein, who was then unaware of his future role in the nation, however, with the marshal's mace already in traveler's panniers, he sought refuge in a temple erected by a great chancellor and a warrior, resting in the crypt under the Ordynacka chapel.
Above it there is a decorative vault with rich stucco.
The walls that are gray today were once upholstered in crimson and yellow, in stripes alternately laid velvet. According to the account of Kajetan Koźmian, who studied at the Zamość Academy in the last years of its existence and was well acquainted with the various monuments of the chancellor's stronghold, this ornament of the Ordynacka chapel in the last decades of the 18th century was almost equal in color, it crawled out and was completely removed in later years.
Above the collector's benches there are bronze plaques with many telling names of the first ordinates.
On the wall hung portraits of Jan and Tomasz Zamoyski by the great artist-painter Wojciech Gerson.
The sarcophagus of Tomasz Zamoyski is not carved in white marble, but rather pampered with the softness of the workmanship, as well as the content of the composition itself, it reveals the hand of the Italian sculptor. On the one hand, it is only drenched with light from a stained-glass window, the other one sinks in partial shade, which further enhances the realism of the reproduced scene. A work by Antonio Argenti from Milan from the end of the 19th century, so similar to the hundreds of tombstones scattered around each Italian "campo santo". Maiden, which shows the dying person the way of eternity and precedes him in his inevitable journey to the afterlife, with the fact of his premature death, he recalls the sorrows accompanying parents after the loss of minor children and Ciekliński's hymns to the little deceased offspring of the hetman dedicated.
Marble slab, decorated with bronze, on the floor of the chapel, it is lying with the heraldic shield of the ordinates and the laconic one, too laconic for the queen's size, but it is precisely the modesty of its content that testifies to the richness of his life as an inscription:
"Hic situs est Joannes Zamoyski" makes us aware, that the chancellor's ashes are buried in the shallow depth of the crypt.
Let us go down to them with these doors, turned aside.
As it used to be during my lifetime, yes and now gladly, though from the darkroom of the grave, through the walls of the coffins into the armor of the wrapped, listens to who is going, who praises and who is ready to love the city he loves.
The heart in the dust of nothingness begins to beat again - put your hand to the coffin lid.
The spirit of the chancellor to pay homage to his ashes conscious, it will inspire you with a love of beauty and the past enclosed in the walls of your dream city, fairy-tale cities - Zamość.