Collegiate Church. Of the Lord's Resurrection and St.. Thomas the Apostle

Collegiate Church. Of the Lord's Resurrection and St.. Thomas the Apostle is one of the greatest churches in modern Polish architecture, class "0" relic.

It was funded by the founder of the city, chancellor Jan Zamoyski and built almost entirely according to the design. and under the supervision of his court architect Bernard Morand in 1587—98. However, the interior work was not completed before the architect's death (1600) and founder (1605). The decorations of the vaults of the naves and chapels were not realized until the time of Tomasz Zamoyski, w 1. 1618—30. The architectural structure of the temple has been preserved to this day, with some changes made during the reconstruction in 1824-26 carried out by the Corps of Military Engineers under the command of Gen.. Mallet-Malletskiego. At that time, the elevations were changed, the gables were lowered, and all the inscriptions and coats of arms of the Zamoyski family were removed, as well as many valuable historical monuments with interior fittings. This was at the express command of the tsar's brother, Grand Duke Konstantin, commander of the Polish Army, who wanted to blur the votive-victorious character of the temple funded by the Polish hetman. During the renovation of the collegiate church in 1951 part of the original stone detail was discovered from under the plaster on the side elevations.

According to the rank of the leading Catholic temple, St. ,.the Zamość state ”, the program of its architecture was conceived as remarkably impressive, kind of cathedral. The numerous chapels were to correspond to the number of canons, who were also professors of the Zamość Academy. Both collegiate, and the Academy had a specific role in the fight against innovation, especially with the schism of the Orthodox Church (here in 1720 a synod in Zamość took place). Celebrations took place in the collegiate church ,,coronation "of successive ordinates, hence, a solemn oath of allegiance to the statute of ordination, an inflatable man in a pontifical outfit. The temple also became the mausoleum of the Zamoyski dynasty. In one word, performed such a function in the "Zamość state", like the Wawel cathedral in the Polish state. Anyway, in the 17th century. it was planned to move the capital of the Chełm bishopric to Zamość and raise the collegiate church to the rank of a cathedral.

The Collegiate Church is quite squat, consisting of a square three-nave basilica with chapels and a small presbytery part. The plan of the temple, unique in Polish architecture, referred to Italian churches from the 15th and 16th centuries. Collegiate church proportions (length. 45 m, times. 30 m), with simple numerical ratios 3 : 2, they repeated the proportions of the entire city; the temple was a fifteen-fold reduction in the size of the city. In both cases, the same unit of measure was used, therefore the church was a harmoniously resonant element of the entire composition of an ideal city. Exterior facades, once richer, arcaded divisions with Doric pilasters add variety. In the frieze of the entablature, there are traces of. decorative Doric triglyphs and me-top motifs. On the cornices, you can see carved letters that are not only assembly marks, but with an interesting symbolic meaning. Each of the 23 the spans were marked with one of the letters of the alphabet, and all the spans encircled the entire collegiate church with the full Latin alphabet from A to Z, starting from NW. corner "corner". In this way, the symbolic meaning of the Greek letters Alpha and Omega - the symbol of the Mystical Christ - was referred to, identified with the Church. The polygonal presbytery has a unique solution in European mannerist architecture in the form of twin windows located on the bend of the walls. The windows with gothic slenderness are beautiful, a sophisticated stone setting with braids. The side portals mark not only the transverse axis of the church, but they are also an extension of the urban axis: collegiate - Academy, linking the two institutions that were once so closely related.

The interior surprises the viewer with its slim lines, "Gothic" proportions, characteristic of Mannerist architecture (show. the nave 20 m, times. 10 m). Slender pillars and high-hanging vaults of the aisles blur the impression of the basilica system and bring the interior closer to the hall. The perspective of a spacious interior is captivating, noble, simple high rhythm, narrow arcades and pillars with Corinthian pilasters elongated beyond all classical standards. The impression of verticalism is discharged, however, thanks to the low chapels, which significantly widen the interior. The rhythm of the interior is emphasized by the punchy architectural and sculptural elements, standing out with a dark line or a stain from the light surfaces of the walls. Mysterious and ingenious, though poorly carved, head cycle (male and female alternately, m. in. Egyptian, Queen, soldier, poet) on the stone keys of the arcades of the nave. They probably represent different nations, states, competition, in a word, they symbolize all of humanity united in the Universal Church. Geometric-radial layout of the stucco network (probably a project. J. Jaroszewicz) on the vaults of naves and chapels is typical of the so-called. Lublin Renaissance 1 half. XVII w.

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