Historical and landscape values ​​of the palace and garden complex in Zamość

Historical and landscape values ​​of the palace and garden complex in Zamość.

Accession of Poland to the European Union 1 May 2004 year, it created the possibility of obtaining subsidies from structural funds for various investments. European regional development fund (EFRR) co-finances projects related to, inter alia, revitalization, maintenance, renovation, modernization and adaptation of historical and historic buildings and their surroundings. Therefore, one of the main goals of Zamość has become to obtain funding for the revitalization of the Old Town, recognized as a historical monument and inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Revitalization works, which started in December 2005 of the year will last until halfway through 2008 year. The total amount of funding obtained from the ERDF is over 18,5 million PLN, while from the state budget 400 thousand. PLN. The investment plan includes renovation of over 60 tenement houses with courtyards, Central House, renovation of the facade of the town hall with an outbuilding, replacement of the surface of the Great Market Square as well as reconstruction and modernization of all streets of the Old Town.

Unfortunately, the established revitalization program did not cover: the entire palace complex, the building of the Zamość Academy, monumental Franciscan church and fortifications. You should judge, that these objects will be included in the next project, currently being prepared, a spanning years 2008-2013. Therefore, the former residence of the Zamojski family will be revitalized only then. Therefore, it was necessary to choose the location of the monumental monument of Jan Zamojski in advance, because the palace-monument system should function precisely in the landscape, like a palace-city-fortification. That spatial structure was built at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. It was very complicated. But it is thanks to her that Zamość is called an ideal city.

I guess, that at present the authors of the palace and its gardens revitalization project will have a difficult task in creating the right landscape composition. Yet these difficulties could have been avoided. It was enough to get acquainted with the rich collection of iconographic materials, cartographic and photographic, to know the state of development of the palace complex in different periods. In chronological order, it should be mentioned:
1. Fortyfikacje bastionowe pałacu Jana Zamojskiego z okresu lokacji miasta w 1580 year.
2. Perspektywiczny plan Zamościa z około 1605 in the work "Urbium praccipuarum mundi teatum quantum" by G.. Brauna and F. Hoghenberga.
3. Plan de la Forteresse de Zamość, before 1694 the year Copper engraving in the work of De Jonsac, „History of Stanislas Jablonowski”.
4. Plan Zamościa z 1704 year.

5. Plan Zamościa F. Buzogany with 1772 year from the collection of A.. Czołowski.
6. Plan Zamościa z 1785 year, scale 1:7400, rkp., signed: „Gerlich M. Already. Derichs… Carl Colorado Infant Anno 1785 ”in the Military Archives in Vienna, reference number. GIK 159.
7. Stan pałacu w Zamościu około 1800 one year before the planned redevelopment, front elevation.
8. Plan of the palace in Zamość z 1801 year. The plan was made by Hołub, surveyor, scale 1:500, bastions are marked 3 i 4, layout of the residence and gardens.
9. Pałac po remoncie i częściowej przebudowie w 1802 year.
10. Pałac w Zamościu, patch 70. XIX w. Photo. K. Shooting.
11. Wejście do ogrodu Andrianowskiego. Photo. nn, from the beginning. XX century.
12. Aleja w ogrodzie Andrianowskim przed I wojną światową. Postcard of the company Prototypie Scherer, Nabholtz and co., Moscou made from a photo by J.. Strzyzowski.
13. Pałac w Zamościu. Photo. E. Falkowski approx 1950 year.
14. Zamość z lotu ptaka. Photo. with 2003 year.

Description of spatial changes in buildings and gardens of Zamojski's residences, based on the analysis of the aforementioned iconographic and cartographic materials, and other scientific studies were made by W.. A loser at work with 2000 year.

Generally it should be said, that in years 1580-1821, the central pre-palace square was devoid of vegetation. The gardens were located on the north and south sides of the palace wings. Even great French architects: C. Percie, P.F.L. Fontanie i A. Dufour, who in 1803 They developed a project of palace and garden assumptions, they did not envisage flower ground floors or high greenery in front of the palace.

A significant chapter in shaping the greenery of the city fell on the period of the Russian occupation and the modernization of the Zamość fortress. In years 40. XIX w. in front of the palace, in the former courtyard of honor and the drill square, a walking garden was created, which was also a place of games and folk festivals. W 1872 It celebrated the bicentenary of the birth of Tsar Peter I., who was supposed to visit the fortress of St. 1698 year.

W 1884 a year in front of the palace was arranged by the army on the initiative and efforts of gen. Andrianowa park – English type garden. It has become a representative place of the so-called. outdoor meetings. In honor of its creator, it was called the Andrian garden. You entered the garden with tickets, through a decorative wooden gate set in 1890 year. The woodcarving of it referred to the Swiss style and features of Russian folk architecture. The Andrian Garden was “densely crisscrossed with alleys with circular arrangements […] There were sculptural forms on the flower beds and gazebos among the trees ".

The fall of Andrianowski Garden takes years 1919-1926, when the city park was marked out and arranged according to the design of Ing. Walerian Kronenberg. W 1929 year the area in front of the Zamojski Palace was redecorated, also according to Kronenberg's design. Most of the trees were cut down and a flower floor was marked out, which opened a wide perspective on the axis of the palace. The District Court in Zamość found its seat in the main palace building. W 1930 In the year, the walking square in front of the former palace was named Romuald Jaśkiewicz, one of the city's most respected citizens, who with his authority supported every social and cultural initiative at that time.

W 1940 The Germans dismantled the iron fence surrounding the palace.

Until June 2004 year in the discussed area grew 40 trees, including several monumental chestnut trees and maples, rare silver linden and mossy birch. In June that year, a dozen or so specimens of trees were cut, preparing the site for the monument.

Just like through the ages (XVI-XX) there were changes in the development of the palace surroundings, so it has undergone many reconstructions. The original Renaissance palace of Chancellor Zamojski was erected together with the city and already in 1581 year was over. It was placed inside the fortress, in the same fortification circuit as the city, surrounded by lots of free space for courtyards and gardens. It was a single-wing castle, two-bay and two-story, topped with an attic like other houses in Zamość. Successive ordinates, who wanted and could have period style seats, in which they lived, they made some architectural adjustments, but most of all they concerned increasing the functionality of the palace interior.

"Only in the years 1744/5, for Tomasz, VII ordinate, it was transformed into a modern spacious palace. The perimeter wall surrounding it was demolished, while symmetrical pavilions and outbuildings were erected on the sides, which on the site of the former closed courtyard formed an open cour dhonneur.

Plan of the palace in Zamość z 1801 year [Tatarkiewicz 1937]

Old walls of the former castle, now constituting the central body of the building, got the style of a new era, the baroque style in its last rococo form and its Saxon variation […] Palace in Zamość with a mansard roof and a dormer, with rococo carvings decorating the facade and the entrance gate, he looked like this, like most of the eighteenth-century palaces in Warsaw, and what the palace in Klemensów still looks like today. […] it was rather typical and effective, niż artystyczny wytwornej roboty”.

View of the Zamość Palace after the reconstruction in the mid-18th century. The drawing was made in 1802 year [Tatarkiewicz 1937]

The next reconstruction of the palace was planned by Stanisław Kostka Zamojski. „W 1802 r. He appointed many people to design a new or renovated palace in Zamość, but a few architects. As a result, a tournament of architects of its kind, the only of its kind in Poland, was created – classics ". Three Polish architects took part in the competition: Jakub Hempel, Piotr Aiguer and Henryk Ittar and a team of three French architects: C. Percie, P.F.L. Fontanie i A. Dufour. They all developed redevelopment projects, and even the construction of a new palace.

However, political conditions thwarted Stanisław Kostka Zamojski's plans to build a new residence in Zamość. W 1821 He had to exchange Zamość with the government of the Kingdom of Poland for other goods. Since then, the Russian occupation authorities have been rebuilding the buildings of Zamość, adapting the city to the role of the main fortress of the Congress Kingdom. Then it, the palace received a simple architectural design, which he has to this day.

In sum, it must be said, that we have proved the existence of rich source messages of various types, which describe and graphically present the surroundings of Zamojski's residence in Zamość, which changed over time, as well as the architectural design of the palace itself.

I guess, that if there are revitalization works on the entire palace and garden complex, it should recreate its appearance from the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries., that is, as it can be seen in the pictures.

Creating a residence according to the design of French architects would be something other than returning to the last pattern, that is, the tradition of the place. A new point element should be precisely integrated into this scenery as faithfully recreated as possible, which is the equestrian statue of the city's founder. It will be very difficult now, because rushing with the construction of the monument, proper and necessary historical, architectural and landscape research was forgotten.